International Cannabis Cultivation

Project Summary

The International Cannabis Cultivation project is a group of researchers interested in better understanding domestic cannabis cultivation, especially by small-scale growers. The current project involves a core online questionnaire developed for an international audience of cannabis growers. The project aims to better understand who grows cannabis, reasons for growing, methods of growing, and experience with the criminal justice system – and how these factors differ across national borders. For more information please visit the International Cannabis Cultivation website.


Special issue of International Journal of Drug Policy

Potter, G. R., & Decorte, T., (Eds.). (2015). Special Issue: Domestic cannabis cultivation. International Journal of Drug Policy, 26(3).


Decorte, T., Potter, G., & Bouchard, M. (Eds.). (2011). World Wide Weed. Global trends in cannabis cultivation and its control. Farnham, UK: Ashgate.

Potter, G. (2010). Weed, need and greed: A study of domestic cannabis cultivation. London: Free Association Books.

Room, R., Fischer, B., Hall, W., Lenton, S., & Reuter, P. (2010). Cannabis policy. Moving beyond stalemate. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Werse, B. (Ed.) (2008). Drogenmärkte. Strukturen und Szenen des Kleinhandels [Drug markets – structures and scenes of small-scale trade]. Frankfurt: Campus Verlag.


Barratt, M. J., Bouchard, M., Decorte, T., Asmussen Frank, V., Hakkarainen, P., Lenton, S., Malm, A., Nguyen, H., & Potter, G. R. (2012). Understanding global patterns of domestic cannabis cultivation. Drugs and Alcohol Today, 12(4), 213-221.

Potter, G. R., & Chatwin, C. (2012). The problem with “skunk”. Drugs and Alcohol Today, 12(4), 232-240.

Wouters, M., Benschop, A., van Laar, M., & Korf, D. J. (2012). Cannabis use and proximity to coffee shops in the Netherlands. European Journal of Criminology, 9(4), 337-353.

Nguyen, H., & Bouchard, M. (2011). Need, connections, or competence? Criminal achievement among adolescent offenders. Justice Quarterly, Online First.

Bouchard, M., Beauregard, E., Kalacska, M. (2011). Journey to grow: Linking process to outcome in target site selection for cannabis cultivation. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, Online First.

Hakkarainen, P., Frank, V. A., Perälä, J., & Dahl, H. V. (2011). Small-scale cannabis growers in Denmark and Finland. European Addiction Research, 17, 119-128.

Nguyen, H., & Bouchard, M. (2010). Patterns of youth participation in cannabis cultivation. Journal of Drug Issues, 40, 263-294.

Decorte, T. (2010). Small scale domestic cannabis cultivation: An anonymous Web survey among 659 cannabis cultivators in Belgium. Contemporary Drug Problems, 37, 341-370.

Decorte, T. (2010). The case for small-scale domestic cannabis cultivation. International Journal of Drug Policy, 21, 271-275.

Lenton, S., & Allsop, S. (2010). A tale of CIN–the Cannabis Infringement Notice scheme in Western Australia. Addiction, 105, 808-816.

Bouchard, M., Alain, M., & Nguyen, H. (2009). Convenient labour: The prevalence and nature of youth involvement in the cannabis cultivation industry. International Journal of Drug Policy, 20, 467-474.

Bouchard M., Dion, C.B. (2009). Growers and facilitators: Probing the role of entrepreneurs in the development of the cannabis cultivation industry. Journal of Small Business & Entrepreneurship, 22, 25-38.

Bouchard, M. (2008). Towards a realistic method to estimate the size of cannabis cultivation industry in developed countries. Contemporary Drug Problems, 35, 291-320.

Barratt, M. J., Chanteloup, F., Lenton, S., & Marsh, A. (2005). Cannabis law reform in Western Australia: an opportunity to test theories of marginal deterrence and legitimacy. Drug and Alcohol Review, 24, 321-330.

Lenton, S. (2004). Pot, politics and the press–reflections on cannabis law reform in Western Australia. Drug and Alcohol Review, 23, 223-233.

Wilkins, C., & Casswell, S. (2003). Organized crime in cannabis cultivation in New Zealand: an economic analysis. Contemporary Drug Problems, 30, 757-777.

Book chapters

Potter, G. R. (2010). You reap what you sow. Profit, pleasure and pain in domestic cannabis cultivation. In T. Decorte & J. Fountain (Eds.), Pleasure, pain and profit. European perspectives on drugs (pp. 134-154). Lengerich: Pabst Science Publishers.

Decorte, T. (2008). Domestic cannabis cultivation in Belgium: On (un)intended effects of drug policy on the cannabis market. In D. J. Korf (Ed.), Cannabis in Europe: Dynamics in perception, policy and markets (pp. 69-86). Lengerich: Pabst Science Publishers.

Potter, G. R. (2008). The growth of cannabis cultivation: Explanations for import substitution in the UK. In D. J. Korf (Ed.), Cannabis in Europe: Dynamics in perception, policy and markets (pp. 87-105). Lengerich: Pabst Science Publishers.

Werse, B. (2008). Retail markets for cannabis – users, sharers, go-betweens and stash dealers. In: D. J. Korf (Ed.),Cannabis in Europe: Dynamics in perception, policy and markets (pp. 106-123). Lengerich: Pabst.

Lenton, S. (2005). Deterrence theory and the limitations of criminal penalties for cannabis use. In T. Stockwell, P. J. Gruenewald, J. W. Toumbourou & W. Loxley (Eds.), Preventing harmful substance use. The evidence base for policy and practice (pp. 267-277). New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Collaborators by Country:

Dr Martin Bouchard
School of Criminology, Simon Fraser University

United States
Dr Aili Malm
Department of Criminal Justice, California State University Long Beach
Holly Nguyen
Criminology and Criminal Justice Department, University of Maryland

United Kingdom
Dr Gary Potter
Department of Social Sciences, London South Bank University
Dr Axel Klein
Centre for Health Services Studies, University of Kent
Dr Cameron Adams
School of Anthropology and Conservation, University of Kent

Prof Tom Decorte
Julie Heyde
Institute for Social Drug Research, Department of Penal Law and Criminology, University of Gent

Dr Vibeke Asmussen Frank
Dr Helle Vibeke Dahl
Anne-Sofie Christensen
Centre for Alcohol and Drug Research, Aarhus University

Dr Pekka Hakkarainen
Department of Alcohol, Drugs and Addiction, National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL), Helsinki, Finland
Dr Jussi Perälä
EHYT Finnish Association for Substance Abuse Prevention, Finland

The Netherlands
Prof Dirk Korf
Dr Marije Wouters
Bonger Institute of Criminology, University of Amsterdam

Dr Bernd Werse
Centre for Drug Research, Goethe University Frankfurt

Prof Simon Lenton
National Drug Research Institute, Curtin University
Dr Monica Barratt
National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales

New Zealand
Dr Chris Wilkins
SHORE & Whariki Research Centre, School of Public Health, Massey University