Illicit Drug Markets

Selected publications are shown below, a complete listing can be found here.

Nguyen, H., Bouchard, M. (2013). Need, connections, or competence? Criminal achievement among adolescent offenders. Justice Quarterly, 30: 44-83.

Variations in criminal performance have been much less explored than other parameters of criminal careers. We explore the factors associated with differential criminal achievement in a sample of 154 adolescent offenders involved in cannabis cultivation. Drawing from theories of earnings attainment, we examine the role of drug use, criminal social capital and criminal human capital...

Bouchard, M., Beauregard, E., Kalacska, M. (2013). Journey to grow: Linking process to outcome in target site selection for cannabis cultivation. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 50: 33-52.

The objective of this study was to test whether there is a relationship between characteristics of the journey to an outdoor cannabis cultivation site and the total number of plants grown. Spatial data on the location of a sample of 132 cultivation sites derived from aerial detection policing efforts is used. TwoStep cluster analysis is...

Gallupe, O., Bouchard, M. (2013). Adolescent parties and substance use: A situational approach to peer influence. Journal of Criminal Justice, 41: 162-171.

This study takes a situational approach to testing criminogenic peer influence effects on substance use by examining audience characteristics at the last two parties that adolescents attended. We examine the applicability of situational approaches to social learning theory and symbolic interactionist perspectives on criminogenic peer group effects.We found that higher levels of substance use are...

Bouchard, M., Ouellet, F. (2011). Is small beautiful? The link between risks and size in illegal drug markets. Global Crime, 12: 70-86.

A well-known finding of research on illegal markets is that drug-dealing organisations operate in risky and uncertain market and intra-organisational conditions that considerably limit their size and their survival time. Yet, little is known about the organisations or individual dealers who are more successful than others at avoiding arrest and incarceration, especially in regard to...

Gallupe, O., Bouchard, M., Caulkins, J. (2011). No change is a good change? Restrictive deterrence in illegal drug markets. Journal of Criminal Justice, 39: 81-89.

This study applies the concept of restrictive deterrence to a sample of drug market offenders. In particular, we assess the influence of behavioral changes post-arrest on time to rearrest. The sample consists of arrest data on all drug offences in South Australia from the start of 2000 to the end of 2007 (n = 26819)....

Decorte, T., Potter, G., Bouchard, M. (Eds). (2011). World Wide Weed: Global Trends in Cannabis Cultivation and its Control. London: Ashgate.

For the majority of its history, the cultivation of cannabis did not stand out, at least compared to the cultivation of other illegal plants. Cannabis plantations, like coca bush or opium poppy plantations, were typically large in size, grown by local farmers in a handful of developing (producing) countries, processed and then exported to industrial...

Bouchard, M., Nguyen, H. (2010). Is it who you know, or how many that counts? Criminal networks and cost avoidance in a sample of young offenders. Justice Quarterly, 27: 130-158.

The aim of the current study is to assess whether criminal networks can help young offenders avoid contacts with the criminal justice system. We examine the association between criminal network and cost avoidance specifically for the crime of cannabis cultivation in a rural region in Quebec, Canada. A self‐report delinquency survey, administered to the region's...

Bouchard, M., Alain, M., Nguyen, H. (2009). Convenient labor: The prevalence and nature of youth involvement in the marijuana cultivation industry. International Journal of Drug Policy, 20: 467-474.

The emergence of cannabis cultivation in industrialised countries may offer adolescents, especially those living in regions suitable for outdoor cultivation, new opportunities to participate in the drug trade. The current study examines the prevalence and the nature of youth involvement in cannabis cultivation in an important agricultural region of Quebec, Canada. A self-report delinquency survey...

Bouchard, M. (2007). A capture-recapture model to estimate the size of criminal populations and the risks of detection in a marijuana cultivation industry. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 23: 221-241.

Originally developed in biology, capture-recapture methodologies have increasingly been integrated into the study of human populations to provide estimates of the size of “hidden populations.” This paper explores the validity of one capture-recapture model—Zelterman’s (1988) truncated Poisson estimator—used to estimate the size of the marijuana cultivation industry in Quebec, Canada. The capture–recapture analysis draws on...

Bouchard, M. (2007). On the Resilience of Illegal Drug Markets. Global Crime, 8: 325-344.

This paper argues that the concept of resilience is a fruitful way of understanding the impact of repressive policies on illegal drug markets. For the purpose of this article, resilience is defined as the ability of market participants to preserve the existing levels of exchanges between buyers and sellers, despite external pressure aimed at disrupting...